[9], The Bethel Mission had established a missionary presence in Tanganyika, German East Africa, inviting the BMS in 1903 to take over a number of its stations. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. While it is a secondary source, transcribed from primary sources, this is an invaluable resource! The Berlin Mission started sending missionaries to South Africa in 1833. It emerged from the German tradition of Pietism after 1815 and sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1834. In 1914 the German colony of Kamerun fell to the combined forces of Britain and its allies. The Society supported work in South Africa, China and East Africa. German missionaries established themselves at various centres in South Africa. No suitable keywords found. Significantly increased numbers of new Covid-cases in South Africa unfortunately require the limitation of customer service again. Kolbe at Philippolis, it was decided instead to establish a mission amongst the Korana at a spot on the Riet River, which they named Bethanien, in September 1834. Missionaries Karl Wilhelm Posselt and Wilhelm Güldenpfennig founded the first BMS station in Natal which they named Emmaus, with further stations being established in the years that followed, including the Christianenberg and Hermannsburg Missions. Other stations followed but on-going frontier conflict was a constraint. It was also a period that left its marks on the nature and character of the Christianity that eventually flourished in Africa… European missionaries to southern Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries played a strangely ambiguous role in the history and affairs of the region. Missionary work amongst the Zulus was their predominant aim. On the other hand they were possessed of a moral self-righteousness which led them to make hasty and uninformed … HMG missionaries in India were interned and repatriated and the assets of the South African mission were appropriated, and the missionaries interned. [1] South Africa is Germany’s most important partner in sub-Saharan Africa. After 1945 the missionaries had to deal with the decolonisation o… The Berlin Missionary Society was one of four German Protestant mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. Many missionaries with close ties to Berlin also had been working in South Africa for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission resulting in South Africa being chosen as the first country where mission field work was conducted by the BMS. [1], Gunther Pakendorf, "A Brief History of the Berlin Mission Society in South Africa,", American Presbyterian Mission (1867). It was at Botshabelo that the missionary R.F Güstav Trümpelmann, with the invaluable assistance of his erstwhile student, Abraham Serote, translated the Bible into Sepedi (Northern Sotho). German-speaking missionaries established the earliest and also the longest surviving Aboriginal missions. However, for several centuries, European settlement would remain limited and temporary. History of German Missionaries in South Africa The Berlin Mission Society (BMS) started sending missionaries to South Africa as early as 1833. Founded in rural northern Germany, from 1854 Hermannsburg missionaries established a network of stations, churches, and schools across the colony of Natal, Zululand, and the Western Transvaal, on land granted to them by the British colonial state, chiefs, and the South African Republic. The wide-ranging and intensive relations between the two countries are underscored by regular high-level visits in both directions. The Spiritual Need in Germany. South Africa. The German-speaking Institute was given the name of Missionaries Sons of the Sacred Heart (MFSC) and it was entrusted with the new Prefecture in South Africa. Related Content. South African Genealogy Look-Ups request volunteers to do free lookups on indexes they have access to South Africa Geneology Forum share your SA genealogy with other researchers top of page. 1953) and the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan and co-operates with the United Church of Christ in Japan and the Church of Christ in China. Welcome to the German Missions in South Africa, Lesotho and Eswatini, Reduced consular service during the Corona-pandemic, Travel to Germany and Schengen visa applications under Covid-19 restrictions. Important information. Merensky sought refuge amongst his Christian converts in the Middelburg district and founded the station at Botshabelo (“city of refuge”) – which soon became the most important station of the Berlin Society in South Africa. Significantly increased numbers of new Covid-cases in South Africa unfortunately require the limitation of customer service again. He wrote a system of regulations addressing fundamental questions of missionary work, the 1881 Missionsordnung der Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der Evangelischen Missionen unter den Heiden zu Berlin.[4]. Fr Christoph Eisentraut, 59, was elected at the chapter of the Congregation of Mariannhill Missionaries (CMM) in Würzburg, Bavaria. [1][2][6] [1][2], It was a successor organisation, in Berlin, to the missionary training efforts of Pastor Johannes Jaenicke [de] (of the Bohemian-Lutheran congregation in Berlin) which had prepared missionaries since 1800 for work with other missionary societies including the London Missionary Society.[3]. He placed all these foundations in direct reference to Our Lady and to the Mis… President Ramaphosa visited … For decendants of Hermannburg and Berlin missionaries and colonists, for the New Germany settlers and other settlers in the old Natal and Transvaal, quite a lot of information is available already. These missions declined after World War I (when Germany lost all its colonies and German missionaries in such areas were deemed undesirable) and their work was impossible after World War II. Later the BMS in China merged with the German East Asia Mission (German: Deutsche Ostasienmission), which in 1972 was integrated into the still existing Berlin Missionary Endowment (German: Berliner Missionswerk). The BMS began the training of its first missionaries in 1829, with assistance from missionary societies in Pomerania and East Prussia. There were few positive reports in the early years, but it was especially active 1859-1914. I posted a link to the website on German genealogy before, but I was searching for my ancestors Carl Krause today and came across this page again that has a transcribed table from the book “The Berlin Missionaries in South Africa and their decendants” by Zoellner and Heese. During colonialism in South Africa they defied the government and educated black students at a time when the colonial governments forbade this … German missionaries were already in the colony prior to the outbreak of the Majimaji. All the way from the Reformation to today, Germany has massive influence over Europe. Even if the Cardinal recited the Rosary, he expressed his devotion to Mary in spearheading undertakings such as the men and women Missionaries of Our Lady of Africa, the basilicas of Algiers and Jerusalem, and the resurgence of the Church of Carthage. [1], The Berlin Missionary Society is still active today as an integral part of the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO). He also acquired the adjacent… In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena, which he renamed Lüderitzbucht. Memorials of Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese. In 1961 the BMS established a branch in West Berlin, which remained in contact with its only remaining missionary field, namely in South Africa, for the next 28 years. Between 1987-2004, he also served as the Bishop of Aliwal. Apparently not adapting well to the Pomeranian climate, however, he returned early to the BMS station at Botshabelo as a teacher. Hotel and hostel operators are not allowed to offer…. South Africans with German Ancestors. German missionaries and colonists left their mark in the form of churches along the northern border of KwaZulu-Natal. In 1840 the London Missi… Germany lost its colonies in the war, and the newly commenced German East Africa mission was terminated. These are missionaries who predate the Second Council of Nicaea so it may be claimed by both Catholic and Orthodoxy or belonging to early Christian groups.. Alopen – first missionary to China (Nestorian); Apollos; Augustine of Canterbury – missionary to England; Saint Barnabas; Saint Boniface – influential in the conversion of German peoples The BMS focused on providing schooling and bringing the gospel to people in their own language. 1884/5 and 1970, when most of Africa had gained their political independence, was one of intense missionary evangelization and witnessed an enormous flow of foreign missionaries into Africa. In February 1805 the London Missionary Society established a small mission in Blydeverwacht, but the efforts of this group met with little success. Until then the only ongoing pastoral work in the area of this Prefecture consisted of sporadic visits of travelling priests to local white Catholics who were mostly recent immigrants. Few returned to Africa and thus German culture was not nurtured. An important director was Hermann Theodor Wangemann [de], who directed the Society from 1865 until his death in 1894. While missionaries could sometimes clash with colonial governments, for the most part missions were important tools for colonial governments. All of the defeated power’s west-African conscripts were interned on the island of Fernando Po, and with them the German Pallottine missionaries. In southern Africa most of the leaders who participated in the fight for independence were educated by missionaries or schools built by missionaries. Please enter your complete search term. It proved unable to speak and act decisively against injustice and racial discrimination and was disbanded in 1972.[5]. While doing his missionary work, he developed the concepts of small Christian villages and bible sharing. By 1900 there were more than thirty six stations and nearly 30,000 converts in the region. German South West Africa German South West Africa, a former German colony (1884–1919) that is now the nation of Namibia, in southwestern Africa. Welcome to the German Missions in South Africa, Lesotho and Eswatini. pp v-vi, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa, Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea, List of Protestant missionary societies in China (1807–1953), Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Evangelische Kirche - Berlin Missionary Society, The Berlin Mission Society and Black Europeans: The cases of Klaus Kuhn, Jan Sekoto and Gerard Sekoto, Richard Miles: Motswana preacher "to the native tribes beyond the border, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlin_Missionary_Society&oldid=994333139, Religious organizations established in 1824, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 04:34. The Berlin Missionary Society was one of four German Protestant mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. Initial European contact with the areas which would become German South-West Africa came from traders and sailors, starting in January 1486 when Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão, possibly accompanied by Martin Behaim, landed at Cape Cross. [1] Kuhn qualified as a missionary (he also took lessons as a violinist) and, after becoming engaged to a German woman, Maria Brose, returned to Africa to the mission station Königsberg in Natal – where he married his bride in 1878. [3] There were few positive reports in the early years, but it was especially active 1859-1914. The Berlin missionaries in South Africa, particularly Alexander Merensky, Knothe, Trümpelmann, Schwellnus and Eiselen, contributed to the study of African languages, producing Bible translations and hymnals. Both World Wars, when access to funding became severely limited, caused even greater disruption. [7], The BMS also sent workers to China in 1869 during the late Qing Dynasty, but it was not before 1882 that the Society officially declared Canton as its mission field, inheriting a station of the Rhenish Mission. Missionaries Alexander Merensky and Heinrich Grützner started work in the north eastern part of the South African Republic in 1860, their first station being at Gerlachshoop. December 2020 a full lockdown applies in Germany to contain the spread of COVID-19. Countless children have been and continue to be educated in schools established by missionaries. It was especially strong in the Boer Republics. Although the missionaries’ works were distinct from those of the colonial government, as they sought to provide social services and economic development along with evangelism, in their anger southern Tanzanians did not differentiate between the two. The earliest efforts were made by George Schmidt, a Moravian whose work was carried on in the late 18th c by other Moravians at the famous Genadendal Mission Station. Any kind of travel is discouraged. Sekoto’s son Gerard Sekoto, born at Botshabelo in 1913, would later emigrate to Europe, obtaining French citizenship and achieving considerable renown as an artist. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. The Berlin Mission started sending missionaries to South Africa in 1833. The Human Sciences Research Council has also researched a number of the early German settler and their descendants and has published books on these. Change after the 1840s - an analogous change occurred in New Zealand in the 1840s. The ninth meeting was held in Berlin on 15 and 16 November 2016. Archbishop Lavigerie was a Christian of the market place, enjoying the historic arena of his own 19th century. German South West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915, though Germany did not officially recognise its loss of this territory until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. Later they spread out to the Transvaal.In this article, I’ll restrict It was especially strong in the Boer Republics. [7], Another gifted African student who had started out with violin lessons and was to follow in Kuhn’s footsteps to Ducherow and then the theological seminary in Berlin was one Jan Sekoto. Their work was interrupted by the Anglo Boer War, during which BMS missionary Daniel Heese was murdered by members of the Bushveldt Carbineers, an irregular regiment of the British Army. A number of missionaries with close ties to Berlin had been working here for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission, and thus South Africa was chosen as the first mission field. Early Christian missionaries. Here you can find my newspaper column, social media Clips and interviews. This site uses cookies in order to provide you with the best possible service. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. Born in January 1929, Fritz Lobinger is a German priest of the Catholic Church. Missionaries played a prominent role in modelling and managing such regimes so that the history of missions is highly contested. They used some of the British Empire’s resources and then in turn the empire coerced them to use their teaching to subdue the Africans. However, from 1962 it began granting independence to its mission churches which, in time, became amalgamated with other Lutheran mission churches in the region and formed the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa. After 1945 the missionaries had to deal with the decolonisation of Africa and especially with the apartheid government. With a total area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time. He carried out missionary works in South Africa when he headed the Lumko Missiological Institute. Fernando Po became, for the duration of the war, an extraordinary school for catechists. It emerged from the German tradition of Pietism after 1815 and sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1834. By contrast, the Moravians (Herrnhuter), who were the first German missionaries in southern Africa in 1737, sent their children to school in Germany. [7], The Tswana Catechist Richard Miles was an early example of an indigenous person fulfilling this role at the Mission Station at Bethanie in the Southern Free State. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition to Bantu Education in South Africa by Linda Chisholm Johannesburg, RSA: Wits University Press, 2018. As a preventative measure to ensure the safety of our customers and…, Starting from 16. At all times the BMS emphasized spiritual inwardness, and puritanical values such as morality, hard work and self-discipline. The first mission station was founded on the far side of the Orange River and was named Bethanien. Hence the Society’s missionaries were often at the forefront of publishing Bible translations, dictionaries and grammars in indigenous languages. - however, most missionaries opposed annexations in South Africa up to the 1840s; one of the best examples of this was the missionary opposition to the annexation of Queen Adelaide Land in 1836-37. the pieces about evangelism and politics in British Africa, many of them nice redactions of large parts of the authors' recent monographs, and that is the book's value for Africanists. The Berlin Missionary Society (BMS) or Society for the Advancement of evangelistic Missions amongst the Heathen (German: Berliner Missionsgesellschaft or Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der evangelischen Missionen unter den Heiden) was a German Protestant (Lutheran) Christian missionary society that was constituted on 29 February 1824 by a group of pious laymen from the Prussian nobility. The BMS sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1833. Until World War I practically half of the missions in Australia were staffed with German speakers. These were mainly the missionaries sent out by the Hermannsburg Mission Society (HMS), who entered Natal from the 1850s onward. There were unsuccessful early attempts to evangelise the Swazi and in Sekhukhuneland. Miles traveled to the interior with the missionary party in 1835. During the Frontier War of 1846 to 1847, these stations were abandoned and the missionaries sought safety in the neighbouring British colony of Natal. The latter keeps well established ties with the Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea (est. Fr Eisentraut served at Mariannhill from 2006-10 before being elected to the congregation’s general council in Rome. It is geographically located in the center of the continent and has by far the largest population of its nine neighbors and 11 indirect neighbors. Places Amalienstein, a Mission Station in the Western Cape; Anhalt-Schmidt, a Mission Station in Little Karoo; Botshebelo Township, near Middleburg; General Galleries. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. From Bethanien missionaries founded a station at Pniel on the Vaal River in 1845, which would be at the centre of South Africa’s diamond discoveries in 1869–70. Moreover, after World War II the Society's Berlin headquarters fell within the Soviet Zone of Occupied Germany. University of Maryland at College Park PAUL S. LANDAU MISSIONARIES AND THE STATE IN GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA DOI: Io.IOI7/Soo2zI8537o337866I The German-South African Binational Commission, which has met since 1996, provides the framework for bilateral cooperation. The publication in 1904 by the British and Foreign Bible Society of this combined effort was the first complete Bible in an indigenous language. Upon arriving in the southern Free State, and on advice from the London Mission Society’s G.A. A second missionary field in China arose after Germany declared Shantung to be within their sphere of political and colonial influence in 1896. It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. A former South Africa-based priest has been elected provincial of his congregation for Germany. I hope you'll enjoy my views and thoughts. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. [8], Niklaas Koen, a “Khoikhoi”, was sent by the BMS to Germany in 1875 to further his education at a high school at Ducherow in Pomerania and afterwards to study for the ministry at the Berlin Missionshaus, where he adopted a German version of his name, Klaus Kuhn. He first traveled to South Africa shortly after becoming director and went a second time in 1884. The missionaries emphasized teachings of never questioning authority and accepting colonial rule as ordained by God. It was as part of this process that Africans, duly trained and sometimes salaried, were accepted into the Society as teachers, catechists and lay-preachers, the so-called Nationalhelferen or national helpers. Missionaries saw the voyages to Africa by their governments as an opportunity for them to spread the teaching of the Christian faith. However, where Lutheran missions were established it soon became evident that German communities would arise too. Missionaries with ties to Berlin had been working there with the London Missionary Society and Rhenish Missionary Society, making South Africa an obvious choice, with the initial objective being to set up a mission to the Tswana. In South Africa, for instance, mission schools started educating African children in the mid-1800s, almost a century before government schools were built for them. A number of missionaries with close ties to Berlin had been working here for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission, and thus South Africa was chosen as the first mission field. Further missionaries arrived in 1836/7, with Jacob Ludwig Döhne setting up BMS stations Bethel and Itemba amongst the Xhosa in a part of the Eastern Cape then known as Kaffraria. It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. THE ROLE OF MISSIONARIES The legacy of Christian missionaries in Africa lives up to this day. Here were established a school, seminary, workshops, mill and printing press; and from here BMS influence spread throughout the Transvaal. 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