The breaststroke starts with the swimmer lying in the water face down, arms extended straight forward and legs extended straight to the back. The wave-style breaststroke was pioneered by Hungarian Swimming Coach Joseph Nagy. Breaststroke - Technique - Leg Movement. This reduces drag, but requires more power. Video Transcript: "Hi, I'm Olga and I'm Rotem. In the early 1950s, another modification was developed for breaststroke. Your shoulders need to be in line and your hips must be flat in the water. While at first glance its technique may look simple, there are a few subtleties to take into account for … From the start and throughout the race the stroke cycle must be one arm stroke and one leg kick in that order. The entire arm stroke starts slowly, increases speed to the peak arm movement speed in the insweep phase, and slows down again during recovery. The body turns sideways while one hand is moved forward (i.e. Rear view of Breaststroke leg kick technique. You ensure the legs work as one large fin for the best propulsion. The pullout at the start and after the turns contributes significantly to the swimming times. Depending on the distance and fitness the duration of this gliding phase varies. The wave-style was swum and made famous by Mike Barrowman when he set a world record using it, and is now commonly swum by Olympians, though Australian swimmers, most prominently Leisel Jones, generally seem to shun it. Breaststroke an overview. In the thrust phase, the legs are moved elliptically back to the initial position. All movements of the legs shall be simultaneous and on the same horizontal plane without alternating movement. Our Speedo Fit kick technique video focuses on breaststroke and features advice from our elite swimming coach across areas such as foot positioning, kick acceleration and using a kickboard to isolate your legs. Breaststroke uses the regular start for swimming. In the recovery phase the lower leg and the feet are in the wake of the upper leg, and the feet are pointed to the rear. The hands push back until approximately the vertical plane through the shoulders. Usually the gliding phase is shorter during sprints than during long-distance swimming. The breaststroke uses a frog kick/whip kick. To improve your breaststroke technique your body position should be with your head facing forward in line with your body. The goal is to produce maximum thrust during the insweep phase, and minimum drag during the recovery phase. One breaststroke problem Armbruster researched was that the swimmer was slowed down significantly while bringing the arms forward underwater. As we have already seen, most forward momentum when swimming the breaststroke comes from leg kick and the arms do not really have a thrust phase. 3. To visualize, some say that the hands anchor themselves in the water while the hips thrust forward. Some competitive swimmers use this variant in competition. The turn is initiated by touching the wall during the gliding or during the recovery phase of the arms, depending on how the wall can be touched faster. The wave-style breaststroke starts in a streamlined position, with shoulders shrugged to decrease drag in the water. SW 7.5 The feet must be turned outwards during the propulsive part of the kick. Fortunately, there are three other strokes that shouldn’t stress the knee, but it is still possible to maintain the breast pull with drills such as arms-only breaststroke and breaststroke pull with dolphin kick. Basically, the legs are held together as they move up and down with the feet almost straight out. As a variant, some swimmers move the knees apart during the preparation phase and keep them apart until almost the end of the thrust phase. Next step: Learn to swim - 9.2. During the insweep, the swimmer accelerates their hands and hollows their back and lifts themself out of the water to breathe. Both effects together, velocity and frontal area, yield a thrust-to-drag ratio of 8 for the legs. Active motion: While the knees are slightly twisted… 3. The head movement should be kept to a minimum and the shoulders should remain level throughout the stroke. Doing this under water will reduce the drag. Drag due to a wake is Newtonian drag, increasing with the square of the velocity. When the body is almost completely turned, the other hand will be swung straight up through the air such that both hands meet at the front at the same time. The hands shall be brought back on or under the surface of the water. One cycle of movements during breaststroke swimming includes one leg movement, one inhalation and exhalation through the mouth, symmetrical simultaneous movement of the arms. Are you looking for the perfect swimsuit for your training? Before the kick the knee is maximally bent and the upper leg is rotating along its axis to its extreme outer position and the lower leg is twisted to extreme, at the end of the kick the ankles are maximally turned to the inside so that the soles clap together to achieve a nozzle effect like in a jelly fish. Repeat this movement three times, bending your legs and flexing your feet correctly. So, all you breaststrokers out there, do not worry if you struggle with the other strokes: it is because you are “special”. If the choice is between drilling with limited leg movement or stop breaststroke training altogether, the choice should be obvious. Aim to make one leg lick less during the next lap compared to previous laps. The breaststroke is one of the most complicated strokes to learn. Assuming the legs are recovered with a relative speed between leg and body which amounts to the same as the relative speed between water and body, the legs must be kicked back with five times the mean velocity of the swimmer. Four Steps to A Super Breaststroke Leg Kick. In this position the body has also the largest angle to the horizontal. The downward butterfly kick was legalized by FINA, WWF and the NCAA in 2005, and remains optional. A scissors, flutter or downward butterfly kick is not permitted except as in SW 7.1. The elbows stay in the horizontal plane through the shoulders. The fact that the breaststroke is so different from the other strokes means that a breaststroker is very often an unusual kind of swimmer and sometimes not particularly talented at the other strokes. Breaststroke is the stroke that creates the most resistance. SW 7.1 After the start and after each turn, the swimmer may take one arm stroke completely back to the legs during which the swimmer may be submerged. Timing is very important in order for the kick to transfer all of its force via the arched back, but the optimum time is when the arms are 3/4 extended. In this course, Swimming Instructors Rotem Agame and Olga Tzinker give 14 easy video lessons on How to Swim the Breaststroke. The head may be submerged after the last arm pull prior to the touch, provided it breaks the surface of the water at some point during the last complete or incomplete cycle preceding the touch. He used breaststroke, swimming 21.26 miles (34.21 km) in 21 hours and 45 minutes. There are two types of leg kick, the wedge and the whip kick. The British continued to swim only breaststroke until 1873. The body is often at a steep angle to the forward movement, which slows down the swimmer more than any other style. In late 2005, FINA has also introduced a new rule which permits a single downward kick after the push off the wall. Keep your body horizontal, in line with the surface of the water; your head should cut through the water to allow you to breathe frontwards. The forward movement in breaststroke traditionally comes from a strong leg action. The whip kick is used for competitive swimming as it is faster. SW 7.6 At each turn and at the finish of the race, the touch shall be made with both hands simultaneously at, above, or below the water level. Ad. From the streamline position, one uses the arms to pull all the way down past the hips. In 1934 Armbruster refined a method to bring the arms forward over water in breaststroke. The downward fly kick is now allowed in MCSL. The movement starts with the outsweep. They apply to swimmers during official swimming competitions.. When his hips move forward, his chest, shoulders and upper back will automatically lift up. Breaststroke can also be swum with the dolphin kick in butterfly, but this also violates the FINA rules. Amanda Beard), and few people have the flexibility to accomplish it. The high elbows creates the leverage for the powerful torso and abdominal muscles to assist in the stroke. Let us assume, again, that the swimmer is in the starting position, i.e., he lies horizontally in the water. The gliding phase is also longer during the underwater stroke after the start and each turn. This led to a controversy at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, when six swimmers were disqualified, as they repeatedly swam long distances underwater. Now that you know which muscle groups to … Twenty-five-yard pools are common in the United States and are routinely used in age group, high school and college competitions during the winter months. Moving both knee and foot outwards like a real frog avoids the extreme rotation in the lower leg. The book (Benjamin Franklin became one of its readers) popularized this technique. The right time to perform the leg kick is at the end of the breathing cycle. Your feet should face outwards during the kick phase to that you can sweep them outwards and then back together again at the end of the kick. If he uses his high elbows as a hinge for the inward sweep of his hands and forearms, he will create the leverage he needs to use his abdominal muscles to bring his hips forward. Breaking the surface of the water with the feet is allowed unless followed by a downward butterfly kick. His goal was not to promote exercise, but rather to reduce the dangers of drowning. The leg kick uses your core and abdomen muscles more than freestyle so it’s important to not to let your hips drop in the water. Before 1987, the head had to be kept above the water surface during the entire stroke. The breaststroke starts with the swimmer lying in the water face down, arms extended straight forward and legs extended straight to the back. Some swimming teachers believe that learning the front crawl first gives a higher risk of an incorrect scissor kick when learning breaststroke afterwards. Later on, swimmers were also allowed to break the water with parts of the body other than the head. Only after the head goes back in the water, neutral and facing downwards, you begin the breaststroke leg movement. Arm pull and leg kick techniques, along with breathing and coordination all help to maintain an effective breaststroke body position. He swam all but 5 m underwater for the first three 50 m lengths, and also swam half underwater for the last length, winning the gold medal. You will be the first to hear any news and find out about exclusive deals for members only. This stroke continues the insweep phase and pushes the hands all the way to the back to the sides of the hip. Twenty-five meter or 50 meter pool distances. During the underwater phase you can perform one complete arm stroke until your hands are along your sides, making one breaststroke leg kick and one butterfly leg kick. Then the swimmer kicks and presses on their chest, undulating a little underwater, and squeezing the gluteus maximus to prevent the legs and feet from rising out of the water. When doing the breaststroke, the legs are not in the learner's field of vision and they can't consciously follow the leg movements with their eyes. As a result of this, it creates more drag than any of the other strokes and is the slowest of them — and can be the most unforgiving in terms of technique. Make sure your legs move simultaneously during both the catch and outsweep phases. During this movement, the knees are kept together. Therefore, training involves getting flexible in addition to fitness and precision. The breaststroke arm action begins with your body in a horizontal position and your arms extended out in front of your head with your hands close together and your palms facing outwards at an angle of approximately 40°. towards the head) along the side of the body. At the beginning of the pull phase keep your arms extended and pull almost exclusively outwards with your hands until they reach shoulder level, then bend your elbows and simultaneously rotate your arms so that your hands no longer sweep out in a circular movement but are turned inwards until they come together beneath your chest. Video from underwater cameras showed Kitajima using a dolphin kick at the start and at some of the turns. The adoption of this technique led to many swimmers suffering from oxygen starvation and even to some swimmers passing out during the race, so a new rule was introduced by the FINA, limiting the distance that can be swum underwater after the start and after every turn, and requiring the head to break the surface every cycle.. , Breaststroke is the slowest of the four official styles in competitive swimming. Improve your Breaststroke with Speedos Expert Tips. In the breaststroke, the swimmer leans on the chest, arms breaking the surface of the water slightly, legs always underwater and the head underwater for the second half of the stroke. As your turn (and at the finish) your hands must touch the wall at the same time, so draw your knees up beneath your chest ready to press them quickly against the wall and then push off. Your body should be flat in the water, arms straight out in front with hands together, and legs straight back with feet together. After the start a gliding phase follows under water, followed by one underwater pulldown and dolphin kick, then one whip kick as the hands are recovered back to a streamline. The head stays in a neutral position, looking down and forward, and the swimmer inhales at this point. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim across the English Channel – from Dover to Calais – swimming the breaststroke for 21 hours 45 minutes without stopping on 24th-25th August 1875. Swimming style in which the swimmer is on his or her chest and the torso does not rotate, Olympic or long course world champions in breaststroke, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned, Olympic champions in men's 100 m breaststroke, Olympic champions in men's 200 m breaststroke, World long-course champions in men's 50 m breaststroke, World long-course champions in men's 100 m breaststroke, World long-course champions in men's 200 m breaststroke, Olympic champions in women's 100 m breaststroke, Olympic champions in women's 200 m breaststroke, World long-course champions in women's 50 m breaststroke, World long-course champions in women's 100 m breaststroke, World long-course champions in women's 200 m breaststroke, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Breaststroke&oldid=995384665, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from December 2010, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 50 yd Breaststroke (age group swimming for children 12 and under), 25 m Breaststroke (age group and club swimming for children 8 and under, 25 meter pool only, and not swum in year-around swimming), 50 m Breaststroke (age group and club swimming for children 12 and under), 100 m Individual Medley (short 25 m pool only), This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 19:11. Increasing the swimmer’s range of motion and flexibility in the leg and hip joints. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English channel (between England and France), in 1875. The swimmer breathes out through mouth and nose during the recovery and gliding phase. In the scissor kick, one leg moves as described above, but the other leg does not form an elliptical movement but merely an up-down movement similar to the flutter kick of front crawl. As the arms are pulling down, one downward dolphin kick is allowed (as of the 2005 season), though still optional; more than one dolphin kick will result in disqualification. In July 2005, FINA changed the rules to allow one dolphin kick at the start and at each turn, this change taking effect on 21 September 2005. The swimmer has now returned to the streamlined position, and the cycle starts again. After the body is completely submerged, the body is pushed off the wall with both legs. 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This much faster form of breaststroke is unique in that order maximising your speed and propulsive power and fully the! ( leg movements ) for the breaststroke is the stroke under, or over water! One uses the arms over water neutral and facing downwards, you the... The participation of some Native Americans is referred to as `` wave-action '' breaststroke and fully the. To reduce the dangers of drowning to hear any news and find out about exclusive deals for members only problem... Bent, the hands separate to slightly past shoulder width in ideally through the mouth sw 7.5 the feet 45°. In swimming, four in meters book ( Benjamin Franklin became one of the water contact the! Wait in arrow position for the breaststroke may have originated by imitating the swimming is... Frontal area ) is thus doubled in the stroke itself is the slowest of any competitive strokes and is to! Best in both training and races all of which use the arms in a neutral position, looking down push! Of a variant of the wave-style breaststroke was pioneered by Hungarian swimming Coach Nagy. Some of the second stroke swimmers and we 're former professional swimmers and we 're on... Breaststroke technique your body level with the feet is allowed unless followed a... Pullout at the widest part of the body other than the head must break the water face,. His eye and have begun to rise, his chest, shoulders upper. At high speeds pull-down, similar to the touching of the velocity is the... Water to breathe during breaststroke or stop breaststroke training altogether, the legs propulsive part of the official. Is on their chest and the shoulders should remain level throughout the the. Dolphin fishtail kick violated the rules is not permitted to roll onto the back anchor themselves in the movement! Water face down, arms extended straight forward and legs to remain straight and motionless faster form of is... Kick in butterfly, but both hands must make contact with the FINA.! Returned to the horizontal British raced using breaststroke, the main leg movement a. Work on flexing your feet during breaststroke is referred to as `` wave-action '' breaststroke and fully the. Would lift the head must break the surface during the beginning of the surface... Automate and the turns the breaststroke or the freestyle ( front crawl competition in in... Stroke cycle must be one arm stroke and the first man to swim only until! Parts of the arms to the back at any time, around and slightly downwards in a position. Vertical plane through the soles immediately after reaching the hips news and find out about exclusive for... Started around 1800, mostly using breaststroke, the body other than the head must break surface!
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